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  Agriculture Extension
Introduction
Mandate/Objectives
Functions
Organizational Chart
Achievements
Farms/ATI
Developmental Projects

 

Introduction

Agricultural Development means the shift from traditional methods of production to new science based methods of farming that include technological factors such as new varieties which increased yields and resistance to insects, Pests & diseases, improved cultural practices, commercial fertilizers, and plant protection measures. An action deals with transferring modern agriculture technology to the farmers for adoption and to increase their production in order to improve their socio economic conditions..  It is the job of Agricultural Research to continuously modify the technological components of production as the changing situation demands.  But all those research efforts are of no use, if these innovations developed at Research Stations are not diffused among the farming community who are the end users.  For farmers to adopt these production technologies successfully, they must first learn about them and then learn how to use them correctly in their prevailing farming system.

This job of diffusing innovations among the rural masses is performed by the Agricultural Extension Service, which not only acts as the carrier of improved technology from research to the farmers but also provides questions of immediate importance/problem from farmers fields  to the Agricultural researchers.  In this way, it also keeps our agricultural scientists abreast of real field problems.  Extension service is thus a vital link between the Researcher and farmers.

The adoption or rejection of innovations depends on factors like awareness, interest, trial and evaluation. In this situation, disseminating agricultural information is only creating awareness.  Appealing to the attitudes and persuading farmers to adopt innovations is an educational process in its true sense.

In most countries there are wide gaps between the yields which can be obtained through the use of available production technologies, and the yields obtained by the majority of farmers.  Research during the last two decades at National Research Institutes and the International Agriculture Research Centres has generated results which have still not been used widely by farmers.  Other reasons for low yields must be sought in the economic, social and political situation in rural areas.

 

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Agriculture Extension Mandate

 

The term “Extension” firstly used in England in 1866 as a system of University Extension. It was picked up by Cambridge & Oxford University followed by others. In USA Agriculture Extension was established in 1914. In Indian Sub-continent Agriculture Extension started in 1902 with the establishment of Department of Agriculture Punjab.  Agriculture in Pakistan plays an important role.  It contributes about 24% of GDP, provides employment to more than 50% of the population and earns about 70% foreign exchange.  In Pakistan Agriculture Extension is run by the public sector with the following mandate.

  • To educate /motivate the farmers for adoption of improved Agriculture  Technology of crop husbandry  evolved by the Agriculture Research  for obtaining highest return per unit  area on sustainable basis.
  • To make the country self sufficient in  food.
  • To improve the living conditions of  small scale farmers.
  • To generate an exportable surplus of  Agriculture Production.

Objectives of Agriculture Extension

Overall Objectives:

Overall objectives as defined by Kelsey & Hearne “experience of end towards which our efforts are directed.  An objective in extension is a “direction of movement” or the “product to reach through educational process”.

  • To reach self sufficiency in food and other crops for the country/nation.

            Through transfer of package of technology received from Research to farmers and make         them aware of condition prevailing in developed countries.
  • To improve the living condition of small scale farmers.
           By adopting, measures to increase the yield per acre through best use of agriculture        practices, so that their income is increased.
  • To generate an exportable surplus of agricultural production/channel to earn foreign exchange
            Fruits, vegetables and other crops potential production and quality production can make a         break through if Export Promotion Bureau cooperates.
  • To pursue Agriculture Development on sustainable basis.

           For this purpose the Agriculture bio-diversity and Natural Resource Management (NRM)        are the proper keys.
  • To implement government policies regarding agriculture development.

          Agriculture policy and plans be prepared and implemented.

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Functions

Improving working condition of staff through pre-service and in-service training.

Pre-service training for preparation and producing well trained personnel in various skills from Agricultural Training Institute & Agricultural University.  In-service training to the persons on job is to enhance the skills of the staff so that they can cope with the existing situation prevailing in the field.

Communication with Client/Target Group

The target group includes both male and female farmers.  Extension addresses in principle agricultural problems of all categories of farmers, however it deals with small scale farmers in rendering special activities. The transfer of knowledge involves communications at each step.  Therefore, it is important for extension agent to know the basics of the communication process. Mass communication media including electronic media such as Radio, Television, Internet, printed media such as newspapers, magazines, posters, leaflets and hand outs etc which may be utilized effectively.

Coordination

Coordination of all the departments linked with Agriculture development such as Agriculture Research, Livestock and Dairy Development, On Farm Water Management, Agriculture Development Banks, Cooperatives, local Kissan councilors, District Kissan Members and other Departments.  Non Government Organization’s (NGO’s) Sarhad Aiwan-e-Zarat, Cotton Committee, Tobacco Board, Irrigation and Agriculture Engineering (Farm Machinery Organization).  Input supplying agencies e.g. Seed, Fertilizers, Pesticides working on Agriculture must frame a District Coordination Committee under the patronship of District Coordination Officer and Chairmanship of Executive District Officer to run the activities of Agriculture sectors smoothly.

Plant Protection

Plant protection is an important objective/scope to be addressed.  In this connection the staff and farmers training be arranged and the legislation already available may be implemented and the Quarantine procedures be adopted by the Federal Government.  In order to combat with the adulteration of pesticides the Vigilance Committee for pesticides be made at District level to address the problems timely, it as included in mandate.

Preparation of Statistical Data

Crop reporting services be created so as to provide accurate data regarding.

    1. Crop Estimates area/production of all crops.
    2. Cost of production of various crops.
    3. Consumption of food per capita, per annum.
    4. Future forecasting i.e. at National Level for domestic requirement and surplus for export purpose

Marketing

Marketing is the main part of mandate to be discussed as it concerned with the production process.  The following innovations are to be kept in mind for dealing with as included in mandate.

  1. Market Information system (MIS).
  2. Market Research (post harvest losses).
  3. Establishment of regulated market.
  4. Market legislation.
  5. Storage for food, fruit, and vegetables crops etc.
  6. Supply and demand situation.
  7. Rural markets.
  8. Supply of inputs for marketing.
  9. Provision of soft loans.

Inputs Supply

Facilitating role of extension for all inputs, seed, fertilizers, pesticides, through advice to relevant authorities and private sector on timely supply of inputs and information to the farmers on availability of inputs a gradual disengagement from production and direct supply e.g. Seed multiplication and nurseries.

Organizing farmers

Working with existing farmers groups and organization and if necessary establishing permanent farmers groups or organization and facilitating input supply and marketing of crop production.

Dissemination of Extension messages

Development of extension tools, written extension materials (leaflet, booklets posters, flip charts, video production and programme for Radio and Television, training of farmers, Non Government Organization (NGO’s) and dealers, field demonstration and field days observation.

Quality Control of Inputs

Registration of dealers for chemical inputs (Pesticides and Fertilizers) registration of growers for seed production and nurseries, physical check up of chemical, seed, fertilizer and nurseries.

Establishment of Rural Support and Farm Services Centres.


Address the farmer’s current production constraints in the area of extension services, planning and input supply.  Facilitate a shift to participatory approach i.e. working together with the farmers in the target area and in cooperation with relevant research institutions, develop and provide technology package.
Mobilize extension service within the target area as effective support system for Farm Services Centres and making available farm machinery on easy rates to the farmers.
Besides this training on the job, touring and other inputs to the research centers, organization and areas of interest to enhance their knowledge and skill for adoption and improvement in their overall farm produce, income and better living condition.

Feed back

Feed back is the real position which is the most important while conducting processes etc.  It can be assessed through periodic meeting, individual contact, reporting system etc, etc.

Monitoring & Evaluation

Though there is no direct evaluation of the extension impact, however the funds provided are financially and physically evaluated through quarterly review.  Besides the impact is judged from crop yields, food production and cash returns to the farmers & overall improvement in their life / living.


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Organization Chart

 


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Achievements

Achievements of Agriculture extension for 2004-05

  1. Educational

Distribution of Monthly Zarat-e-Sarhad.

21000 Nos.

Distribution of Booklets.

6000 Nos.

Distribution of Leaflets/Pamphlet.

100,000 Nos.

Radio talks recorded & broadcasted through PBC.

125 Nos.

TV Programmes Broadcasted.

10 Nos.

Film Shows at Village Level held.

25 Nos.

Agriculture Extension Shows and Melas Held.

15 Nos.

Demonstration Plots Laid out

2470 Acres

Field Days Held.

51 Nos.

2.    Basic/Certified Seed Production on Government Farms 2004-05

S.No:

Name of Crop

Area in Acres

Production
(in Mounds)

Average Yield
per acre

1

Sugar Cane

14

7150

516.71

2

Maize

73

1000

13.72

3

Paddy

178

2975

16.72

4

Gram

237

2425

10.22

5

Wheat

1691

43400

25.66


3.    Quality seed procured by Frontier Seed  Corporation during 2003-04 (from Govt. Seed Farms, Agric. Research,   Registered     Farmers).

4.  Quality Seed Distributed During 2004-05 (Rabi)

Wheat:

 

 1. By Frontier Seed Corporation

2500

 

2. By FSC through Farm Services Centers

1500

 

3. Through Private Dealers

4000

 

Total Wheat Seed Distributed:

8000

Gram:

97

G.Total

 

8097

5. Horticulture Activities 2004-05

1.

Bud wood provided to farmers.

2000 Nos.

2.

Fruit Orchards inspected.

1200 Acres

3.

Off season vegetables demonstration

100 Acres

4.

Farmer Trained (Male)

750 Nos.

5.

Farmers Trained (Female)

250 Nos.

6.

Fruit plants distributed.

81400 Nos

7.

Fruit Nurseries

19 Nos.

6. Plant Protection and Quality Control Measures 2004 – 2005

1.

Inspection of pesticides dealers

2100 Nos.

2.

Training organized for candidate pesticides dealers

50 Nos.

3.

Total No. of pesticides dealers registered.

10 Nos.

4.

Total No. of new Pesticide Firm registered in the province

3 Nos.

7. Integrated Pest Management Activities 2004-05

A. IPM (Fruit Fly)

1.

Agriculture Officers Trained

66 Nos.

2.

Field Assistants Trained.

198 Nos.

3.

Farmers Trained

800 Nos.

4.

Traps distributed

3200 Nos.

5.

BAT (Bait Application Techniques)

400 Acres

6.

Field Days held.

16 Nos.

7.

Literature Distributed.

16000 Nos.

B. IPM Termites 2004-05

1.

Agriculture Officers Trained

77 Nos.

2.

Field Assistants Trained.

285 Nos.

3.

Farmers Trained

800 Nos.

4.

NIFA Termaps distributed.

2400 Nos.

5.

Turmeric demonstration (as repellent).
(1 Kanal each)

400 Nos.

6.

Field Days held.

16 Nos.

7.

Literature Distributed.

16000 Nos.

8.

Sugarcane sets treated

80 Acres

 


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Farms/ATI

Seed Farms in NWFP

S.NO

Name of Farm

District

1

Seed Farm Rakh Zandani

Dera Ismial Khan

2

Seed Farm Rutta Kulachi

Dera Ismial Khan

3

Seed Farm Rakh Bundkurai

Dera Ismial Khan

4

Seed Farm Rakh Mangan

Dera Ismial Khan

5

Seed Farm  Jamra

Mardan

6

Seed Farm Sarai Naurang

Bannu

7

Barani Seed Farm Bahdar Khail

Karak

8

Barani Seed Farm Hangu

Hangu

9

Barani Seed Farm Haripur

Haripur

10

Seed farm Charsadda

Charsadda

Fruit Nursery Farm in NWFP

S.NO

Name of Farm

District

1

Fruit  Nursery Farm

Kohat

2

Fruit Nursery Farm Rutta Kulachi

Dera Ismial Khan

3

Fruit Nursery / Progeny Garden Mirpur

Abbottabad

4

Fruit Nursery Farm Mangal

Abbottabad

5

Fruit Nursery Farm Mingora

Swat

6

Fruit Nursery Farm Kishwara

Swat

7

Fruit Nursery Farm/Progeny garden Dargai

Malakand

8

Fruit Nursery farm Dargai

Malakand

9

Fruit Nursery fARM Timergara

Lower Dir

10

Fruit Nursery farm Charbagh

Swabi

11

Fruit Nursery farm Pattan

Kohistan

12

Fruit Nursery farm Kosht

Chitral

13

Fruit Nursery farm Reyeen

Chitral

14

Fruit Nursery farm Booni

Chitral

15

Fruit Nursery farm Chapari

Chitral

16

Fruit  Nursery Farm Sarai Naurang

Bannu

17

Fruit Nursery Farm Zaitoor

Chitral

18

Date Garden Rakh Mangan

Dera Ismial Khan

 

 

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Development Projects
Regular ADP 2005-06 Projects
Promotion of Cotton Crop in DIKhan
Extension of Farm Services Centers in NWFP
Integrated Management/ Control of Fruit Flies
Integrated Management/ Control of Termites
Agriculture Extension Activities in Remote District of NWFP
Provision of Mobility to Agriculture Extension Staff in NWFP
Agriculture Sector Developmental Loan Projects 2005-06
Enhancement of Agriculture Extension Education & Publicity Programme through Modern Technology.
Strengthening Of Research & Extension Coordination Through Establishment Of Farmers Field Schools in NWFP
Establishment of 8 Model Villages in NWFP
Integration of Agriculture Services through Establishment of Model Farm Services Centers in All Districts of NWFP

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